7. Adjective Reduced Clauses


An adjective clause is a dependent clause that contains a subject and a verb. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun.

Adjective Clauses are introduced by the following words:  who, whom, whose, which, that, where, or when

Clause Marker





The people who lived in the village used smoke signals.






The woman whom we met was the head of a village






I know the man whose bicycle was stolen.






That is a story which interests me. (subject)



The drumbeats which we heard sent a message. (object)



The tree is tamarin tree that has always full of fruits. (subject)



The smoke that you see is from the hills. (object)



That is the valley where the nomad  lived.






This is the day when we get the signal.





Reduced adjective clauses

Sometimes the relative pronoun may be omitted from an adjective clause.  The relative pronouns which, that, who, and whom can be omitted when they are the object of the adjective clause.

For example:

  1. The man whom I met last night was the manager of the famous café. (as object)

The man I met last night was the manager of the famous café.

  1. The bell that he heard just now was the sign of the guest coming. (as object)

The bell he heard just now was the sign of the guest coming

When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, it cannot be omitted

For example:

The man who played the violin was Idris Sardi. (subject)

Reduced Adjective Clauses

Adjective clauses can be reduced to phrases. An adjective phrase does not contain either a subject or a verb, and it modifies a noun. Also, only adjective clauses that have a subject pronoun – who, which, or that – can be reduced.  There are two ways to reduce an adjective clause:

1. The subject pronoun and the be form of the verb are omitted.

·        Clause: The man who is playing is my friend.

·        Phrase: The man playing is my friend.

·        Clause: The signals, which are given, are simple.

·        Phrase: The signals given are simple.

2. When there is no form of be in the adjective clause, you may omit the subject    pronoun and change the verb to the “–ing” form.

  • Clause: The man who watches television can listen to the message.
  • Phrase: The man watching television can listen to the message.
  • Clause: His assignment, which consists of two projects, was an important job for him.
  • Phrase: His assignment consisting of two projects, was an important invention for his people.



  1. We visited the Farmer’s Market. It is a place of a great activity
  2. ELLY got credit for the victory. She was the relief pitcher.
  3. Ms. Bella will talk about careers in banking.  She is the manager of a local   bank.
  4. The debate was judged by Mrs. Leeds. She is a retired judge.
  5. The theft was committed last night. The police have caught the man.
  6. The French language is different from the Latin language. Latin was once spoken throughout Europe.
  7. The landlord was proud of his strength. His tenants respected him well.
  8. The shop keeper keeps his money in a wooden case. His wife didn’t know this wooden case.
  9. Our serious problems will be discussed. It is the food shortage.
  10.  The guides are high school students. They are dressed in Loyalist costumes.


  1. George is the man who was chosen to represent the committee at the convention.
  2.  All of the money that was accepted has already been released.
  3. The papers that are on the table belong to Patricia.
  4. John’s wife who is a professor has written several papers on this subject.
  5. The man who is talking to the policeman is my uncle.
  6.  The book that is on the top shelf is the one that I need.
  7.  The number of students who have been counted is quite high.
  8. Leo Evans, who is a doctor, eats in this restaurant every day.
  9.  The people who were waiting for the President gave applauses.
  10.  The house which was rented had been renovated for a month. 


1.      We will have to return the merchandise purchased yesterday at the harbour.

2.      The children sat in the fancy restaurant found it difficult to behave.

3.      Serving a team of four years, the mayor of the town will face reelection next Year.

4.      The brand new Cadillac, purchasing less than two weeks ago, was destroyed in the accident.

5.      The fans who supported their team always came out to the games in large numbers.

6.      The suspect can be seen in the photographs were just released by the police.

7.      The food placing on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.

8.      Impressed with everything she had heard about the course, Marie signed her children up for it.

9.      The passengers in the airport waiting room, heard the announcement of the canceled flight, groaned loudly

10. Dissatisfied with, the service at the restaurant the meal really was not enjoyable.



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6. Direct and Indirect Sentences



Direct and indirect sentences/ reported speech

There are three types on indirect sentences:


Reported speech contains two clauses; main clause and sub clause

There are three type of reported speech:

1. Statement

2. Question: using questsion words or yes/no questions

3.   Command

In reported speech there are changes the tenses if in the main clause the introducing verb is in past, whereas there is no changes tense if in the main clause  the introducing verb is in present.


  • He said: “ I’ll go tomorrow”
  • He said that he would go the following day.
  •  He said: “accounting is very technical field.”
  •  He said that accounting was very technical field


  •   He asked me : “ Where did you go?”
  • He asked where I had gone.
  • The man wanted to know: “ Will you withdraw your money tomorrow?”
  • The man wanted to know if /whether I would withdraw my money the following day.


  • “Be happy,” he said.
  • He told me to be happy.
  •  “Don’t forget to remind me of the meeting”, the manager told the secretary.
  • The manager told the secretary not to forget to remind him of the meeting.


I.       Change these sentences into indirect sentences


1.      “The professional accountant can understand about accounting” , he said

2.      “A public accountant serves organization on a fee basis” she said.

3.      “ It is impossible for us to finish the work today”, they said.

4.      “ We’ll know the answer next month”, the manager told us.

5.      “ There’s no problem with you”, the doctor said.

6.      “ They are listed on the balance sheet”, she said.

7.      “ Where can transaction be recorded”, he asked.

8.      “ Don’t put the data on the different folder”, the secretary told him.

9.      “ We haven’t made any fixed plans yet”, we explained.

                 10. “ Please write to me when you have arrived safely”, she told him.

II.            Change into direct sentences

    1. He told us not to argue with him.
    2. She asked her aunt to wait for her.
    3. She exclaimed that it was a beautiful view.
    4. The mechanic said that his car needed an overhaul.
    5. I told him not to stand there but to do something
    6. Lisa said that the train would be there soon.
    7. She said that she would wait for me there the next day.
    8. He wondered if he would be able to get there.
    9. The doctor asked her whether she had noticed anything unusual about him.
    10. They asked him when the team from England would arrive.

III.     Choose the correct answer

1.      The manager told the secretary ……

a.     typed the letters carefully

b.     is typing the letter carefully

c.     to type the letters carefully

d.     types the letters carefully

2.      The teacher wondered …..  the test by themselves.

a. if the students did                  

b. if did the students do

c.   students did

d.   why do the students do

3.   The economist said that the customers …… the public’s opinions

      a.   will accept                               

      b.   is accepted                             

c.   accepted

d.   accept

4.   He mentioned that ……

a. the bank will send the monthly statement

b. will the bank send the monthly statement

c.   the bank have sent the monthly statement

d. the bank sent the monthly statement

5.   “Why have you refused his report?” The indirect question is….

a. She asked if I have refused his report

b. She wanted to know why I had refused his report

c.   She asked why I refused his report

d. She required why she refused his report





My name is Jani. I was born in 1985 and educated at Merdeka University, where I passed at the Economics department. I left the University in  2008 and went to work for an Insurance Company. Then I came to live in Jakarta and got a job at the Embassy. I’ve been there for about two years but I don’t think I’ll stay there much longer. At the moment I’m living in Bandung but I may leave soon. I want to do a Public speaking Course but I can’t do it until I’ve got my permission.


Do you know a girl called Anita who works at the Embassy? Is she taking a Public speaking course? Will she marry Joni? Did you take an English course at the University? Have you passed your course?







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Clauses of Purpose and Reason



A.   Clauses of Purpose

The conjunctions used are So that, so, so as to

v  Usually comes after a main clause

The purpose of using these conjunctions:

      When saying for intention.

      Usually use  the form of a to-infinitive clause

     •      nstead of using  to-infinitive , it is often used in order to or so as to


  1. The children sleep together to keep warm.

      The children sleep together in order to keep warm.

  1. I keep the window open to let fresh air in.

           I keep the window open so as to let fresh air in.

  1. I would to give myself something to do in order not to be bored.

           I would to give myself something so as not to be bored

  1. Any holes should be fenced so that people can’t fall down them.
  2. She said she would be ready at six so she could be out by eight.

B.    Clauses of Reason

The conjunctions used are because, as, since

It is used to explain why something happens

Usually comes before or after the main clause

Usually comes before or after the main clause

The purpose of using these conjunctions:

      When explaining why someone does something or why it happens

      Usually  use because , since, as

      When talking about possible situation which explains reason, use in case or just incase


  1. I couldn’t see Henty’s expression, because her head was turned.
  2. Since it was Saturday, she didn’t go to work.
  3. As he had been up since 4 am, he was very tired.
  4. I asked him why he had come.
  5. As she wanted to practise her spoken English, Kanita regularly took part in the English Conversation Club.
  6. Mark joined the English Drama Club because he wanted to improve his intonation.

C. Clauses of result

The conjunctions used are” so”, “so… that” and “such… that”

They are used when indicating the result of an action or situation.

So …. Adjective + noun ….. that

Such …. Adjective/noun phrase…. That


  1. The lecture was boring, so some of the students began to fall asleep.
  2. Tony was having problems with mathematics, so he went to see his tutor to ask for advice.
  3. There were so many books on the subject that  Sinta didn’t know where to begin.
  4. There was such a lot of material to cover that  Intan found it difficult to keep up with his studies.

Talking about the result of an action or situation, we may prefer to use and as a result or with the result that.


  1. The lecture was boring and irrelevant, and as a result some of the students began to fall asleep.
  2. The lecture was boring and irrelevant, with the result that some of the students began to fall asleep.
  3. As a result can also be used at the beginning of a new sentence.
  4. The lecture was boring and irrelevant.  As a result, some of the students began to fall asleep.

D. Other clauses/ causal relations that use other types of conjunctions: Therefore, Thus, In consequence, Consequently, For this/that reason

    • Causal relations can be expressed by ing-clauses of result.
    • The government increased the duty on wine. As a result, there was a fall in demand.
    • The government increased the duty on wine, resulting in a fall in demand.



  1. The lecture was boring. Some students began to fall asleep.
  2. Peter was having problems with mathematics. He went to see his tutor to ask for advice.
  3. There were so many books on the subjects. Sinta didn’t know where to begin.
  4. We will not go climbing. The weather is good.
  5. He left the house slowly and quietly. He made sure he had his keys with him.
  6. I told the truth. You would not believe me.
  7. They have known her since he was a child. They are like their parents.
  8. I must leave now. I have a great deal of work to do.
  9. The bus fare is expensive. I prefer to walk.
  10. She studied for many months. She knew the material thoroughly.
  11. It is raining again. We will have to cancel the match.
  12. He has apologized.  We will take no further action against him.
  13.  My parents were disappointed. I didn’t get the scholarship.
  14.  The company conducted a detailed survey. It will judge its clients’ views.
  15. We were able to carry out the experiment.  Our staff could work efficiently
  16. We were unable to carry out the experiment. The computer malfunctioned


1.      She sang …………… soothing lullabies that the baby was soon asleep. ( so, as)

2.      He owned ……….. many books that his walls were lined with bookcases. (because, so)

3.      He kept reading ……………. finish his assignment.  ( so , in order to )

4.      The moon will rise …………..  the sun sets. (as soon as, than)

5.      I went for a walk …………… the sun was shining. ( so that, because)

6.      Dr Ken adjusted the overhead projector ………… the students would be able to see the chart more clearly. ( so that, as)

7.      The lecturer finishes his lecture five minutes early …………. the students will join for the seminar. ( because, because of)

8.      Tina’s family will leave early today …………… they can catch the train on time. ( since,  so that)

9.      A key piece of equipment broke down ……………… the laboratory session had to be cancelled. ( because, so)

10.  Enny joined the English club ……………… she wanted to increase her circle of friends. ( so that, because)

11. Dave was ……………..  busy with his final year project that he was unable to take part in other activities. (so that, so)

12.  It was ……….. a successful lecture that the English language Centre decided to repeat it the following semester. ( so, such)

13.  The snow was …………… deep for us to walk across the field. (so, such)

14. Yesterday I walked ………… far that I fell asleep immediately after supper. (so, such)

15. I had ……………. a good time at the party, I did not want to leave. (so, such)

16. I see her ………….. often that I feel I know her quite well. (so, such)

17.  ………………..he is very busy, he is seldom at home. (So that, Because)

18.  They all felt tired ………………. the hot weather. (so that , because)

19.  ……………… their interest in comets, they decided to study astronomy. (Because, such

20. Please come with us,  ………………… I can introduce you to my friends. (such that, so that)

















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4. Clauses of time



Using: Before, After, While, When, as soon as, once, till, until


A time clause starts with an adverb of time (before, after, when, while, as soon as, then etc.)

Following that is an action. It may help if students consider that the action is connected with a time.

The type of time clauses:


1. One action happened before or after another:

      I got sick after I ate some bad food.

      I ate the food before I got sick.

(“Had eaten” can be used in place of “ate” to emphasize that the action of eating was completed before the action of getting sick.)

2. One action happened at the same time or very soon after another:

      I felt terrible when I woke up the next day.

      I almost fainted when I got out of bed.

3. One action happened while another action was in progress:

      My friends visited me while I was sick.

4. By the time. It refers to one event is completed before another event.

      By the time he arrived, we had already left.

      By the time she comes, we will already have left.

1.      As soon as, once. It refers to an event that happens and followed by another event soon afterwards.

As soon as it stops raining, we will leave

Once it stops raining, we will leave.

6. Until, till means to that time and then no longer. (Till is used primarily in speaking rather than in speaking)

      They stayed there until they finished their homework.

      They stayed there till they finished their homework


A.    We use these words (before, after, while and when) to introduce time clauses to tell when something happens.


Ron washed the floor before he watched the soccer match.
Ron washed the floor after the soccer match ended.
Ron washed the floor when the soccer match ended.
Ron washed the floor while he was watching the soccer match.

When the independent clause comes first in the sentence, no comma is needed.

When the dependent clause comes first in the sentence, the clauses are separated by a comma.


B. You can use when or after to explain some cause and effect situations


Effect: He got a flat tire (puncture).
Cause: He ran over some glass.

The clause: 

He got a flat tire after he ran over some glass.
After he ran over some glass, he got a flat tire.




I.                    Combine the following sentences using the conjunction that is provided


1.  Rosa studied very hard.
    She took the exam on Thursday. (before)

2. Angus was thoroughly exhausted.
    He ran the  Marathon about 26 miles. (after)

3. The doorbell rang.
    B0by was taking a shower. (when or while)

4. Jona was eating his dinner of beef chops and beans.
    He was watching the news on TV. (when or while)

5. Gio was backing into a parking space.
    He heard a crunch. (when or while)

6. Hasan was looking in his backpack for his umbrella.

    He saw a flash of lightning. (when)

7.      The rain was starting.

      Hasan began to run (when)

8.      Joe was working as a gardener.

     His wife was making money by sewing in a textile factory. (while)

9.      Gany was sitting in front of the customer service.

He met Ginny at the parking lot (after)

10. The Brians found a place to stay.

They looked for a comfortable hotel (after)

II. Now you supply the conjunction: before, after, when, while, as soon as, untill


1. Sony had heard the orchestra several times.
    He invited them to play at the Independence Day concert.

2. Jennifer had a date with Charles.
    She thought she was falling in love.

3. Christie cried for weeks.
    Her mother died.

4. Aaron was eating dinner.
    Caroline called to ask about the assignment.

5. Sean had to stay home for three weeks.
    He injured his back.

6. Hanna started talking to Jim .

Tad went to the restroom.

7. Tedy came back.

    Hanna and Jim were talking.

8. Tedy yelled at Jim.

     He grabbed him.

9.  Hanna was typing.

     Tammy walked into the restaurant.

10. Tammy walked into the restaurant.

     Hanna was checking the bills.

11. Tammy crashed into the fish tank.

      She fainted.

12. Water spilled everywhere.

      The fish tank fell over.

13 Someone robbed the cash register.

     The manager returned to it.

14. First, I have to graduate.  I can return home

15.  They waited at the store by the street. The rain stopped.

16. The rice will be done in about ten minutes. We can eat.

17. The singer finished her song. The audience burst into applause.

18.  The guests will go home. The programs ends

19.  Dinner won’t be ready. We should just sit here by the fire.

20.  I was getting on the bus. I remembered that I had left my briefcase ata home.




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unit 1: One-Ones-Other





–        Any person, people in general.

–         You mean any person, people in general. One is more formal than you.

–         You, rather than one, is used more frequently in every day English.


1.      One should always be polite.

2.      How does one get to the post office from here?

3.      You should always be polite.

4.      How do you get to the post office?

2. Other is used as either adjectives or pronouns. Others is used for plural pronouns


The students in the class come from many islands. One is from Bali. Another student is from Kalimantan.  Another is from Sumatra. Other students are from Java. Others are from Madura.

3. The other (s): all that remains from a given number; the ret of specific group.


I have three pens. Two are mine. The other pen is yours. The other is yours.

4. Each other and one another. It indicates a reciprocal relationship.


1. We write on each other every week.

2. We write to one another every week.

5.  Every other can give the idea of “altenate’


1. Please write every other line.

2. I see him every other week

6. Another is used with expression of time, money and distance, even these expressions contain plural nouns.


1.  I will be here for another three years.

2. We need another ten dollars.

3. They drove another ten miles.


I. All have errors. Make the pronoun usage in the following consistent.

1.      One should always try to be friendly to your neighbors.

2.      One can’t know what he can actually do until you try.

3.      It is important for a person to listen to your conscience.

4.      You can get to the airport by taxi or by bus. People can catch the airport bus at the hotel.

5.      Self esteem is important at one’s mental health. It is important for you to like yourself.

6.      It is important for one to take care of their health.

7.       One should also be careful to get plenty of exercise. Adequate rest is important, too. People can’t be their best if one is tired all the time.

8.      One must respect others when he wants other respect to him.

II. Supply the correct form of other, the other, another

1.      Sany got three letters. One was from his father. …… one was from his sister. …. Letter was from his girl friend.

2.      Look at your hand. There is a total of five fingers. One is your thumb. …….is your index finger. …….. One is your middle finger. ……. Finger is your ring finger. And …… finger (the last of the five) is your little finger.

3.      Look at your hands. One is your right hand. ….. Is your left hand.

4.      I invited five people to my party, Out of those five people, only John and Mary can come.   ..…. Can’t come.

5.      I invited five people to my party. Out of those five people, only John and Mary can come. …… people can’t come.

6.      One common preposition is from. ….. Common one is in. ……. Are by, for, and of. The most frequently used preposition in English are at, by, for, from, in, of, to, and with. What are some…. Prepositions?

7.      Two countries border on the United States. One is Canada …… is Mexico.

8.      One of the countries I would like to visit is Sweden. ….. Is Mexico. Of course, besides these two countries, there are many ….. Places I would like to see.

9.      He will graduate in …. Two years

10. They’ve almost finished.  They just need ….. five minutes.

11. Mr. and Mrs. Green are a happily married couple. They love …..

12.  There are two men standing on the corner. One is Geo and … is Henry.

13.  I would like to read more about this subject. Do you have …. Books that you could lend me?

14.  There are many means of transportation. The airplane is one. ….. are the train, the car, and the horse.

15.  In just …. Three weeks, he will be married a rich and handsome man.

III. ERROR ANALYSIS.  Analyze each sentence and correct it if it is wrong.

  1. I have another a five year daughter and a three years old son.
  2. Another State in the country have a different language.
  3. The English is one of the other important language in the world.
  4. I lost my textbook, so I had to buy the other.
  5. Prices continually rise. Next year a new car will cost each three or four hundred dollars.
  6. Some people prefer classical music, but another prefer rock music.
  7. The student must return the library books in another three week from now.
  8. All of the guest enjoy one another in the farewell party.
  9. He succeeded in creating another best army in the world.
  10. Each other States in the country have different language.

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compound sentences

. Combine with paired conjunction–both…and…; not only … but also…; either … or…; neither…nor…

  1. He does not have a pen. He does not have paper.
  2. Ron enjoys horseback riding. Bob enjoys horseback riding.
  3. We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.
  4. She wants to buy a Nissan, or she wants to buy a Toyota.
  5. In may spare time, I enjoy taking care of my pets  and to work on my stamp collection.
  6. The hypo faces extinction. Tiger faces extinction
  7. Andy is absent. Ricky is absent.
  8. We could fly. We could take the train.
  9. Small pox is a dangerous disease. Malaria is a dangerous disease.
  10. Her friends don’t know where she is. Her brother doesn’t know where she is.
  11. Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource. Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.
  12. You’ll go to Bali for your vacation. You’ll go to Singapore.
  13. His cousin is living with him. His mother in law is living with him too.
  14. You can have tea. You can have coffee.
  15. The library doesn’t have the book I need. The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

II. Error analysis

  1. By obeying the speed limit, we can save energy, lives, and it costs us less.
  2. My home offers me a feeling of security, warm, and love.
  3. The pioneers labored to clear away the forest and planting crops.
  4. When I refused to help her, she became very angry and shouted at me.
  5. In may spare time, I enjoy taking care of my aquarium and to work on my stamp collection.
  6. Either Mr. Andy or Mrs. Anty are going to teach our class today.
  7. I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.
  8. Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.
  9. Either John will call Mary or bob.
  10. Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.
  11. The man not only deposited his money but transferred to his son.
  12. Jane is absent but she is sick.
  13. She didn’t lose her purse, nor did she lose her umbrella.
  14. They know large families behave elegantly and act honest.
  15. Ida hasn’t been to Bali, nor has she been to Surabaya.
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